سه شنبه 7 دی 1395

کلاه ناصر خانی

   نوشته شده توسط: کیامرث بخشی زاده    

در قرن نوزدهم، مردان عادی ایل شلوارهای دمپا گشاد (تنبان)، پیرهن‌های بی یقه (قیناق)، عبایی بلند (ارخالق) که با شال محکمش می‌کردند و قبای نمدی گرم (کپنک) می‌پوشیدند. ایشان کلاه نمدی سیاه گردی (برک) نیز بر سر می‌گذاشتند. تفنگ، چاقو، خنجر، شمشیر و چماق نیز از مهمترین قسمت‌های آراستگی مردان به شمار می‌آمد. در حالی که در شهرها خاصان قشقایی به ویژه عالی مقامان‌شان لباسی شبیه به خاصان قاجاری می‌پوشیدند: پیرهن بی یقه، عبای بلند و کلاه پوستی بلند و دواری که گاه سرش تخت بود.

در آغاز قرن بیستم مردها پیراهن بی یقه سفید، شلوار گشاد سیاه که دم پایشان جمع شده بود، قبایی که جلویش با کمربند بسته می‌شد، و کلاه کوتاه و گرد نمدی می‌پوشیدند. بعضی مردها نیز ژاکت‌های پوستی و جلیقه‌های نمدی می‌پوشیدند. پاپوششان نیز مانند همه ایران گیوه (ملکی) بود. برای جشن‌ها، شکار و جنگ مردها عبای نازکی به نام چوقا می‌پوشیدند. بستن قطار فشنگ نیز مایه مباهات بود. مردهای طوایف گوناگون قشقایی بر اساس کمربند و شیوه بستن قطار فشنگشان قابل تشخیص بودند.

از ۱۳۰۷ که رضاشاه پوشیدن لباس‌های محلی را ممنوع کرد تا ۱۳۲۰ که مجبور به استعفا شد، مردان قشقایی از پوشیدن قبا، کمربند و کلاهشان منع شدند. ایشان مانند تمامی مردم ایران (به جز روحانیون) مجبور به پوشیدن لباس‌های غربی شدند. پس از ۱۳۲۰ قشقایی‌ها به پوشیدن لباس‌های گذشته‌شان روی آورند با این تفاوت که آرخالق به لباس مهمانی تبدیل شد و چوقا ورافتاد. در همین زمان ناصرخان قشقایی که از زندان رضاشاه گریخته بود و در پی ایفای نقش مؤثری در مقام ایلخانی ایل قشقایی بود، کلاهی جدید (دوگوشی) به قشقایی‌ها عرضه کرد که در رنگ‌هاینخودی، مازویی و خاکستری، از نمد ساخته می‌شد. این کلاه به سرعت توسط مردان قشقایی پذیرفته شد و به سمبلی از قدرت، خودمختاری و هویت قشقایی‌ها بدل شد.


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