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نسیم ایل - برنو و قشقایی ها
سه شنبه 7 دی 1395

برنو و قشقایی ها

   نوشته شده توسط: کیامرث بخشی پور    

دایان:
‍ تاریخچه ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ

ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﮐﺴﯽ ﻫﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ
ﺍﻓﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ
یکی ﺍﺯ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﻨﮕﻬﺎی ﮔﻠﻮﻟﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ
ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 1898 ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ
ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ Mauser ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﮐﻤﯽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺳﺮ
ﺍﺯ ﮔﻮﺷﻪ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺟﻨﮕﻬﺎﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭآورد
ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻋﺸﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻮﯾﮋﻩ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ آن ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﺶ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﻣﻨﺪﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ
ﺗﺪﺍﺭﮎ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﺪ ﻭ خیلی ﺯﻭﺩ ﺟﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺩﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯ ﮐﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﭘﻬﻠﻮﯼ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺭﺗﺶ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ
ﺍﺯ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺍﻧﻔﻴﻠﺪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻰ ﻭ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﮔﺎﺕ ﺭﻭسی (ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻏﺎﻥ , ﻧﻮﻗﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‏)ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ
ﺑﻮﺩ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻳﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﺎﻟﺐ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ
ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺧﻮﺏ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﺪ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻼﺡ
ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ Mauser ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻬﺮ Brno ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﭼﮏ ﺍﺳﻠﻮﺍﮐﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ , ﺩﺭ ﭼﮏ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﺸﺪ
ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﻡ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ
ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ :
ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 19439-1940 ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ
ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻼﺡ , ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﺸﺪ:
ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺪﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻭ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ
ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﺑﯿﻦ ﻭ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻮﭘﺨﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﺒﻮﺑﻴﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﯾﻞ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺩ ﺑﻌﻠﺖ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ؛ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻠﻴﮏ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﺳﺐ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﮓ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻫﻢ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﮑﺎﻳﻲ M1 ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺎ G-3 ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺷﺪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ
ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﻮی ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪی ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ یکی ﺍﺯ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ های ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﻠﺤﻪ ﺩﺭ
ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ,ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻝ ﭼﮏ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﻝ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻨﺎﻡ Persian Mauser ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺳﺖ , ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ
ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﻮﻱ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺷﺎهی ﻧﻴﺰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﻓﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩی ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﻠﺤﻪ ﺩﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺷﮑﺎﺭچی ﻫﺎ ﻭ
ﮐﻠﮑﺴﻮﻳﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ
ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ:

ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﻠﺤﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﺩ , ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﯾﻞ
ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ محلی ﺷﺪﻩ .. ﺷﻌﺮﻫﺎی ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﺸﺎﻳﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺣﺘﯽ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﻨﮓ ﻗﺒﺮﻫﺎ
ﻋﺸﺎﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺷﮑﺎﺭﭼﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﻮﻫﺎی ﻗﺪﯾﻤﯽ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﻧﻤﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺎ
ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺁﺷﻨﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎهی ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﻠﺤﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ
ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ
ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﺗﻴﺮﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﺪﺭی ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ ﮔﻴﺮی ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺷﻠﻴﮏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺻﺎﺑﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ
ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺯﺑﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﮏ ﺗﻴﺮﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﺶ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯی
ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺳﺖ
ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺶ ﺷﺎﻫﻨﺸﺎهی ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺿﺎﺷﺎﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺴﺮﺵ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻨﮓ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻮﺭﺵ ﻋﺸﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ‏(ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﺎ‏)
ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﺟﻨﮓ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺷﺎﻫﺪی ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﻋﺎﺳﺖ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻨﮓ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﯿﺮ
ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﻭ ﻫﺪﻑ ﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﺎ ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﯿﺮﺕ ﺯﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﺍﻥ ﺣﮑﻮﻣﺖ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ
ﮐﻪ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﺎ ﮐﻤﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺳﻠﺤﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻼﺕ ﻗﺸﻘﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯽ
ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ
(بازنویسی شده از سایت کارخانجات برنو)


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